quinta-feira, abril 28, 2011

Do e Make — Diferença e Uso

We often use “do” [Nós normalmente usamos o “do”] with certain nouns [com certos substantivos] to describe activities [para descrever atividades], or things that have [ou coisas que tenham] an effect on people [um efeito nas pessoas]:

• I can't wash up - I have to do my homework.
• The campaign may have done more harm than good.

Other nouns commonly used [Outros substantivos normalmente usados] with “do” include [com “do” incluem] business, damage, (an) exercise, (somebody) a favour, (no) good (or not (do) any good), housework, (somebody) an injury, a job, research.

In informal English [No inglês informal], we can use “do” [nós podemos usar “do”] instead of another verb [ao invés de um outro verbo] to talk about certain jobs [para falar sobre certos trabalhos]:

• Can you do the shoes before the children go to school? (= clean the shoes)
• Aren't you going to do your hair? It looks untidy. (= comb/brush your hair)

We can also use “do” [Nós também podemos usar do] instead of [ao invés de], for example: arrange (flowers), cook or make (a curry), cut (nails, hair), make (beds), tidy (a cupboard, a desk, a garden).

We also use “do” [Nós também podemos usar “do”] when we talk about [quando nós falamos sobre] general or indefinite [algo geral ou infinito] rather than particular activities [ao invés de atividades em particular]:

• I think David has done something to the computer. I can't get it to work.
• Did you do anything about the broken window this morning?

We sometimes specify [Nós às vezes especificamos] particular actions [ações particulares] after first introducing the actions in general with “do” [após a primeira introdução das ações em geral com “do”]:

• I did a huge amount yesterday. I finished the report, I ordered some new textbooks...

We use “do” with an -ing form [Nós usamos “do” com uma forma de -ing] as a noun when we talk about jobs [quando falamos de empregos] and leisure activities [atividades de lazer]. A word or phrase such as [Uma palavra ou frase como] the, some, a bit of, a lot of, etc. is usually used before the noun [é normalmente usada entes do substantivo]:

• I normally do the ironing while I'm watching TV.
• He's hoping to do a bit of skiing while he's visiting Bernard in Austria.

We also use “do” [Nós também usamos o] to talk about [para falar sobre] cleaning, cooking, gardening, shopping, washing (up). Compare:

• I'm going to paint. and
• I'm going to do some painting.
• I'm going to read some books, (but not I'm going to do some book reading.)

Normally, if there is an object [se existe um objeto] (e.g. 'some books') after the verb [depois “do” verbo], we can't make a sentence [nós não podemos fazer uma sentenca] with a similar meaning with “do” [com um significado parecido com “do”] -ing. However, we can talk in this way [No entanto, nós podemos falar dessa forma] about bird watching, letter-writing, note-taking, sightseeing.

To talk about constructing [Falar sobre construir] or creating something [ou criar algo] we use make rather than “do” [nós usamos make no lugar de “do”]:

• The firm I work for makes children's clothes.
• I cut out the pieces, but she made the model all by herself.
• I made some fresh coffee and gave her a cup.

We also use make with certain nouns [Nós podemos usar make com determinados substantivos], particularly when we are talking about [principalmente quando estamos falando sobre] an action that someone performs [uma ação que alguém está realizando]:

• Try not to make a noise
• She made an offer for my car that I accepted.

Other nouns commonly used with make [Outros substantivos normalmente usados com make] include an announcement, an application, an arrangement, an attempt, a choice, a comment, a contribution, a decision, a difference, a discovery, an enquiry, an excuse, a habit of doing something, a list, a journey, a mistake, money, a (phone) call, a plan, a point, a promise, a remark, a sound, a speech, a suggestion.

We can use make [Nós podemos usar make] to say how successful [para dizer quão bem-sucedido] someone was [alguém era] or would be in a particular job or position [ou seria em um determinado emprego ou posição], or how successful something was [quão bem-sucedido ao foi] or would be for a particular purpose [ou será em um propósito particular]:

• He would probably have made an excellent prime minister.
• That old table would (or will) make a good place to put the television

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