quinta-feira, maio 20, 2010

OFF – Seu Uso e Significado em Inglês

Depois de nossa materia inicial sobre o que são as preposições e o papel que elas desempenham dentro da comunição linguística (Cfr.: Como Usar as Preposições em Inglês), iremos abordar o significado de cada uma deles em nossa aula de inglês.

Como foi dito, a preposição em si não tem um significado, mas sim um sentido, é nessa linha de pensamento que iremos considerar o sentido da preposição OFF.

Com excessão dos phrasal verbs, o sentido isolado de OFF primariamente é de remoção, de sair do lugar.

O Dictionary.com define primariamente:

1. So as to be no longer supported or attached: This button is about to come off.
2. So as to be no longer covering or enclosing: to take a hat off; to take the wrapping off.
3. Away from a place: to run off; to look off toward the west.
4. Away from a path, course, etc.; aside: This road branches off to Grove City.
5. So as to be away or on one's way: to start off early; to cast off.
6. Away from what is considered normal, regular, standard, or the like: to go off on a tangent. [Sair pela tangente]

Mesmo que seja metaforicamente, o uso de OFF nessas definições sempre são de sair, remover, fora.

7. From a charge or price: He took 10 percent off [ou seja, a menos do preço] for all cash purchases.
8. At a distance in space or future time: to back off a few feet; Summer is only a week off.

Sentido de interrupção:

9. Out of operation or effective existence: Turn the lights off.
10. Into operation or action: The alarm goes off at noon. [Mudança de inatividade para atividade. Ou seja, estava desligado e depois DISPAROU]
11. So as to interrupt continuity or cause discontinuance: Negotiations have been broken off.
12. In absence from work, service, a job, etc.: two days off at Christmas.
13. Completely; utterly: to kill off all the inhabitants.
14. With prompt or ready performance: to dash a letter off.
15. To fulfillment, or into execution or effect: The contest came off on the appointed day.
16. Into nonexistence or nothingness: My headache passed off soon.
17. So as to be delineated, divided, or apportioned: Mark it off into equal parts.
18. Away from a state of consciousness: I must have dozed off. [Interrupção no estado de consciência. Quase que metaforicamente desligado.]

19. Nautical. away from the land, a ship, the wind, etc. [Também como já foi mencionado, OFF tem o sentido de distância, principalmente quando se trata da linguagem náutica]

O sentido de remover como pedaço, literal ou simbolicamente:

20. So as no longer to be supported by, attached to, on, resting on, or unified with: Take your feet off the table! Break a piece of bread off the loaf.
21. Deviating from: off balance; off course.
22. Below or less than the usual or expected level or standard: 20 percent off The marked price; I was off my golf game.
23. Away, disengaged, or resting from: to be off duty on Tuesdays. [Simbolicamente, como se você estivesse “desligado” do trabalho]

24. Informal. refraining or abstaining from; denying oneself the pleasure, company, practice, etc., of: He's off gambling. [Ou seja, ele parou de fazer apostas (jogos de azar)]

No sentido de distância geográfica e de composição material:

25. Away from; apart or distant from: a village off the main road.
26. Leading into or away from: an alley off 12th Street.
27. Not fixed on or directed toward, as the gaze, eyes, etc.: Their eyes weren't off the king for a moment. [Movimento]
28. Informal. from (a specified source): I bought it off a street vendor. [Origem, trouxe algo DE alguém/algum lugar]
29. From or of, indicating material or component parts: to lunch off cheese and fruit.
30. From or by such means or use of: living off an inheritance; living off his parents. [Como “viver às custas de alguém”: to live off somebody]
31. Nautical. at some distance to seaward of: off Cape Hatteras.

Serve como adjetivo, normalmente relacionado à coisas negativas, ou adjetivos negativos, mas não é regra:

32. In error; wrong: You are off on that point.
33. Slightly abnormal or not quite sane: He is a little off, but he's really harmless.
34. Not up to standard; not so good or satisfactory as usual; inferior or subnormal: a good play full of off moments.
35. No longer in effect, in operation, or in process: The agreement is off.
36. Stopped from flowing, as by the closing of a valve: The electricity is off.
37. In a specified state, circumstance, etc.: to be badly off for money.
38. (of time) free from work or duty; nonworking: a pastime for one's off hours.
39. Not working at one's usual occupation: We're off Wednesdays during the summer.
40. Of less than the ordinary activity, liveliness, or lively interest; slack: an off season in the tourist trade.
41. Unlikely; remote; doubtful: on the off chance that we'd find her at home.
42. More distant; farther: the off side of a wall.
43. (of a vehicle, single animal, or pair of animals hitched side by side) of, being, or pertaining to the right as seen from the rider's or driver's viewpoint (opposed to near): the off horse; the off side.
44. Starting on one's way; leaving: I'm off to Europe on Monday. They're off and running in the third race at Aqueduct.
45. Lower in price or value; down: Stock prices were off this morning.
46. Nautical. noting one of two like things that is the farther from the shore; seaward: the off side of the ship.
47. To go off or away; leave (used imperatively): Off, and don't come back!

Estudando atentamente cada um desses usos, fica mais do que claro que a preposição OFF em inglês se refere à algo relacionado à distância, remoção, interrupção, negatividade, inatividade e ação ao mesmo tempo.

Não há necessidade de decorar essas definições. Basta apenas perceber o SENTIDO da preposição OFF e isso lhe ajudará a saber usá-la quando necessário e entendê-la quando preciso.

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