Receba por E-mail

quinta-feira, março 10, 2011

Presente Perfeito Contínuo — Inglês Avançado

CONTÍNUO, PRESENTE, PERFEITO, COMO, USAR, AULA, INGLÊS
We use the present perfect continuous [Nós usamos o presente perfeito contínuo] to talk about a situation or activity [para falar sobre uma situação ou atividade] that started in the past [que começou no passado] and has been in progress [e tem estado em progresso] for a period until now [por um período até agora]. Sometimes we use the present perfect continuous [às vezes usamos o presente perfeito contínuo] with expressions that indicate the time period [com expressões que indicam o período de tempo] (e.g. with since and for):

• I’ve been meaning to phone Jack since I heard he was back in the country.
• The competition has been running every year since
• She’s been living in New Zealand for over a year now.
• People have been saying for ages that the building should be pulled down.

Without such an expression [Sem tais expressões], the present perfect continuous refers to a recent situation or activity [o presente perfeito contínuo se refere à uma situação recente ou atividade] and focuses on its present results [e se foca em seus resultados presente]:

• Look! It’s been snowing.
• ‘You’re looking well.’ ‘I’ve been playing a lot of squash to lose weight.’
• ‘Haven’t seen anything of Rod for a while.’ ‘No, he’s been working in Germany.’

The situation or activity may still be going on [A situação ou atividade pode ainda está ocorrendo], or it may just have stopped [ou pode ter acabado de parar]. Compare:

• We’ve been discussing the proposals for a number of years. (= still going on) and
• Your eyes are red - have you been crying? (= recently stopped)

We use present perfect continuous [Nós usamos o presente perfeito contínuo] when we ask questions with [quando fazemos perguntas com] How long...? and when we say [e quando nós dizemos] how long [há quanto tempo] something [algo] has been in progress [tem estado em progresso]:

• How long have you been waiting for me?
• How long have they been living next door to you?
• For more than two years I’ve been trying to get permission to extend my house.
• Unemployment has been rising steadily since the huge increase in oil prices.

We can use the present perfect continuous [Nós podemos usar o presente perfeito contínuo] or a present tense [ou um tempo presente] (the present simple [o presente simples] or the present continuous [presente contínuo]) when we talk about a situation or activity [quando falamos de uma situação ou atividade] that started in the past [que começou no passado] and is still happening now [e ainda está acontecendo] or has just stopped [ou acabou de parar]. However [No entanto], we use the present perfect continuous [nós usamos o presente perfeito contínuo] when we are talking about [quando nós falamos sobre] how long the action or event [quanto tempo a ação ou acontecimento] has been going on [tem estado em andamento]. Compare:

• I’ve been seeing a lot of Tom since he moved into the flat (not I see...)
• It’s been raining heavily all night (not It’s raining...)

For the difference between [Para ver a diferença entre] the present perfect [o presente perfeito] and present perfect continuous [e o presente perfeito contínuo] in sentences like this [em sentenças como essas], see the article in the end of this one, entitled Presente Perfeito Contínuo vs Presente Perfeito [veja o artigo no final nesse, intitulado Presente Perfeito Contínuo vs Presente Perfeito].

When we talk about situations or actions [Quando falamos de situações ou ações] that went on over a past period of time [que continuou em um período de tempo no passado] but finished [mas acabou] at a particular point [em um ponto específico] in time before now [no tempo antes do presente], we don’t use the present perfect continuous [nós não usamos o presente perfeito contínuo]:

• I was reading until midnight last (not I have been reading...)
• She had been living in Spain before her family moved to (not She has been living...)
• He put off the decision for as long as possible, but eventually he made up his mind and bought the car. (not He has been putting off...)

We generally avoid [Nós normalmente evitamos] the present perfect continuous [o presente perfeito contínuo] with verbs that describe states [com verbos que descrevem estados].


Mais dicas de inglês:

Cf. Presente Perfeito Contínuo vs Presente Perfeito
Cf. Presente Perfeito e Passado Simples
Cf. Presente Perfeito Contínuo

Nenhum comentário:

Postar um comentário