terça-feira, agosto 03, 2010

Passado com advérbios — Inglês Avançado

Some time adverbs that connect the past to the present are often used with the present perfect: [Às vezes, os advérbios que conectam o passado ao presente são frequentemente usados com o presente perfeito.]

• Don’t disturb Amy. She’s just gone to sleep, (not ...she just went to sleep.)
• Have you seen Robert lately (not Did you see...)

Other time adverbs like this include already, since (last week), so far, still, up to now, yet. [Outras vezes, advérbios como “already”, “since (last week)”, “so far”, “still”, “up to now”, “yet”.]

When we use time adverbs that talk about finished periods of time we use the past simple rather than the present perfect: [Quando nós usamos os advérbios temporais que falam sobre períodos concluídos de tempo, nós usamos o passado simples no lugar do presente perfeito.]

• Marie died, at the age of 86, in 1964. (not Marie has died...)

Other time adverbs like this include (a month) ago, at (3 o’clock), last (week, month), on (Monday), once (= at some time in the past), then, yesterday. [Outras vezes com advérbios como esse incluem (a month) ago, at (3 o’clock), last (week, month), on (Monday), once (= há algum tempo no passado), then, yesterday.]

We often use before, for, and recently with the present perfect and also the past simple. [Nós normalmente usamos “before, for” e “recently” com o presente perfeito e também passado simples.]

For example:
...with present perfect

• Nothing like this has happened before.
• We’ve had the dishwasher for three years.
(= we have still got it)
• A new school has recently opened in New Road.

...with past simple
• Why didn’t you ask me before.
• We had the car for six years.
(= we no longer have it)
• I saw Dave recently.

Time adverbs that refer to the present, such as today, this morning/week/month, can also be used with either the present perfect or past simple. If we see today etc. as a past, completed period of time, then we use the past simple; if we see today, etc. as a period including the present moment, then we use the present perfect. Compare: [Os advérbios de tempo que se referem ao presente, tal como hoje, esta manhã / semana / mês, também podem ser usados tanto com o presente perfeito ou passado simples. Se nós vemos o “hoje” como um passado, etc, um período de tempo “concluído”, então usamos o passado simples: se nós vemos o “hoje”, etc como um período que inclui o presente momento, então usamos o presente perfeito. Compare:]

• I didn’t shave today (= the usual time has passed; suggests I will not shave today) and
• I haven’t shaved today. (= today is not finished; I may shave later or may not)
• I wrote three letters this morning. (= the morning is over) and
• I’ve written three letters this morning. (= it is still morning)

We use since to talk about a period that started at some point in the past and continues until the present time. This is why we often use since with the present perfect: [Nós usamos “since” para falar sobre um período que se iniciou em algum tempo no passado e continua até o presente tempo. Essa é a razão de frequentemente usarmos “since” com o presente perfeito:]

Since 1990 I have lived in a small house near the coast.
• Tom has been ill since Christmas.

In a sentence which includes a since-clause, the usual pattern is for the since-clause to contain a past simple, and the main clause to contain a present perfect: [Numa sentença que inclua uma cláusula com since, normalmente a mesma deve conter um passado simples, e a clausula principal conter o presente perfeito:]

Since Mr Hassan became president, both taxes and unemployment have increased.
• I haven’t been able to play tennis since I broke my arm.

However, we can use a present perfect in the since-clause if the two situations described in the main and since-clause extend until the present: [No entanto, nós podemos usar um presente perfeito em uma clausula com since se as duas situações descreverem o principal e a clausula since se extender até o presente:]

Since I’ve lived here, I haven’t seen my neighbours.

We use the present perfect with ever and never to emphasise that we are talking about the whole of a period of time up until the present: [Nós usamos o presente perfeito com “ever” e “never” para enfatizar que nós estamos falando sobre o inteiro período de tempo até o presente:]

• It’s one of the most magnificent views I have ever seen. (= in my whole life)
• I’ve never had any problems with my car. (= at any time since I bought it)

We use the past simple with ever and never to talk about a completed period in the past: [Nós usamos o passado simples com “ever” e “never” para falar sobre um período completado no passado:]

• When he was young, he never bothered too much about his appearance.

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